Existential Therapy: Understanding Its Core Principles

existential therapy

Existential therapy is a unique approach to psychotherapy that emphasizes human existence, freedom, and the search for meaning. Rooted in existential philosophy, this therapeutic model delves into the fundamental aspects of human life, addressing questions about purpose, existence, and the choices we make. By focusing on these core principles, existential therapy helps individuals navigate life’s inherent uncertainties and challenges, fostering personal growth and self-awareness.

The Foundation of Existential Therapy

This therapy emerged from the philosophical ideas of thinkers such as Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Martin Heidegger. These philosophers explored themes of existence, freedom, anxiety, and authenticity, which have significantly influenced the development of this therapy. Unlike other therapeutic approaches that concentrate on specific symptoms or behaviors, this therapy aims to understand the broader context of an individual’s life and experiences.

Key Concepts

Existential Freedom and Responsibility

This therapy posits that individuals have the freedom to make choices and shape their lives. With this freedom comes the responsibility for these choices, which can lead to existential anxiety or “angst.” Therapists help clients recognize their freedom and encourage them to take responsibility for their actions and decisions.

Meaning and Purpose

A central tenet of this therapy is the search for meaning and purpose in life. Therapists guide clients in exploring what gives their life meaning and how they can live more authentically. This process often involves confronting existential questions and embracing one’s true self.

Existential Isolation

Despite being inherently social creatures, this therapy acknowledges the inherent isolation each person experiences. This isolation stems from the fact that no one can fully understand another’s experience. Therapy aims to help clients accept this isolation and find ways to connect meaningfully with others.

Death and Mortality

Awareness of mortality is a critical aspect of this therapy. Confronting the reality of death can lead to a more authentic and fulfilling life. By accepting the inevitability of death, clients are encouraged to live more fully and purposefully.

Existential Anxiety

Existential anxiety arises from the awareness of freedom, isolation, and mortality. Unlike pathological anxiety, existential anxiety is considered a normal part of the human experience. Therapists help clients understand and navigate this anxiety, using it as a catalyst for personal growth.

The Therapeutic Process

In this therapy, the therapeutic relationship is paramount. Therapists adopt a non-directive, empathetic, and authentic stance, creating a safe and supportive environment for clients. The therapeutic process often involves the following steps:


Clients are encouraged to explore their beliefs, values, and experiences. This self-exploration helps them gain insight into their life’s meaning and purpose.

Confronting Existential Issues

Therapists guide clients in confronting existential issues such as freedom, responsibility, isolation, and mortality. This process can be challenging but is essential for personal growth.

Finding Authenticity

Clients are encouraged to live authentically, aligning their actions with their true selves and values. This involves making conscious choices that reflect their genuine beliefs and desires.

Embracing Existential Anxiety

Rather than avoiding or suppressing existential anxiety, clients learn to embrace it as a natural part of life. This acceptance can lead to greater resilience and a deeper sense of fulfillment.

Benefits of Existential Therapy

This therapy offers numerous benefits, including:


  • Enhanced Self-Awareness: Clients gain a deeper understanding of themselves, their values, and their purpose.
  • Greater Resilience: By confronting existential issues, clients develop the resilience to face life’s challenges.
  • Improved Relationships: Understanding existential isolation can lead to more meaningful connections with others.
  • Increased Authenticity: Clients learn to live authentically, making choices that reflect their true selves.
  • Reduced Anxiety: Embracing existential anxiety can reduce its intensity and lead to personal growth.

Applications of Existential Therapy

This therapy is versatile and can be applied to various issues, including:


  • Depression and Anxiety: Helping clients find meaning and purpose can alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  • Life Transitions: Assisting individuals in navigating significant life changes, such as career shifts, relationship changes, or aging.
  • Grief and Loss: Providing support in coping with the death of a loved one and exploring the impact of mortality.
  • Existential Crises: Addressing profound questions about existence, purpose, and the meaning of life.


Existential therapy is a profound and holistic approach to psychotherapy that addresses the fundamental aspects of human existence. By exploring themes of freedom, responsibility, meaning, and mortality, this therapy helps individuals navigate life’s complexities and find a deeper sense of purpose. Through self-exploration and the therapeutic relationship, clients can achieve greater self-awareness, resilience, and authenticity. Embracing the existential challenges of life ultimately leads to a more fulfilling and meaningful existence.